No account? Create an account ### USEFUL math this time

So suppose you were trying to make the curved-top sleeve of a 14th-15th-century shirt, smock, dress, pourpoint, etc. (And how many of my friends-list aren't doing that this week?) You've got a measurement from the top of the sleeve to the wrist, and a measurement from the armpit to the wrist, and the difference between these measurements is the height (trough to peak, i.e. twice the amplitude) of the curve. You've also got an armscye that the sleeve needs to fit into, which means the length of the curved top (after deducting seam allowances) has to match the length of the armscye (ditto). So, given the width of the fabric and the height of the curve, how long will the curved top be? Even better, given the height of the curve and the length of the armscye, how wide should the sleeve top be?

For simplicity, let's assume the curve is a sine wave. Its amplitude is h/2, and its wavelength is w (the width of the fabric). In computing the length of the curve, we don't care whether the whole thing is raised up, or lowered, or rotated, or any of that, so I'll just say

f(x) = -(h/2) cos(2 π x/w)

To find the length of a curve, you compute the definite integral of sqrt(1 + f'(x)) (check Wikipedia... yes, I remembered that formula right, yay.)

f'(x) = π h/w sin(2 π x/w)

So we need the integral of sqrt(1 + π2 (h2)/(w2) sin2(2 π x/w))
which is almost certainly non-integrable. That's what numeric methods are for. Now, I know the RIGHT ways to compute integrals numerically involve Simpson's rule and stuff like that, but I don't remember any of the details from twenty years ago, so I'll use brute force and do a Monte Carlo integration: generate a gazillion random (x,y) points in a rectangle that encloses the curve in question, and see what fraction of the points are under the curve.

```(define (points-below f xmin xmax ymin ymax points-left answer)
(if (<= points-left 0)
(local [(define x (+ xmin (* (- xmax xmin) (random))))
(define y (+ ymin (* (- ymax ymin) (random))))]
(if (< y (f x))
(points-below f xmin xmax ymin ymax (- points-left 1) (+ 1 answer))
(points-below f xmin xmax ymin ymax (- points-left 1) answer))))
)

(define (integrate f xmin xmax ymin ymax points)
(* (- xmax xmin) (- ymax ymin) (/ (points-below f xmin xmax ymin ymax points 0) points))
)

(define (arc-length fprime xmin xmax ymax points)
(integrate (lambda (x) (sqrt (+ 1 (sqr (fprime x)))))
xmin xmax 0 (+ 1 ymax) points))
```

Wait, that's stupid: if I'm computing f(x) anyway in order to tell whether the random (x,y) is below it, why not use the full f(x) information rather than just that one bit?

```(define (add-f-values f xmin xmax points-left answer)
(if (<= points-left 0)
(local [(define x (+ xmin (* (- xmax xmin) (random))))]
(add-f-values f xmin xmax (- points-left 1) (+ (f x) answer)))))
(define (integrate f xmin xmax ymin ymax points)
(* (- xmax xmin) (/ (add-f-values f xmin xmax points 0) points)))
```

On testing, this does seem to give me more-accurate answers, slightly faster, for the same number of points.

In fact, it's a little spooky: multiple tests of the same arc-length computation give me EXACTLY the same answer, to 17 places. That can't be right... no, wait, those tests are for a triangular-topped sleeve, whose derivative takes on only two values, and they're negations of one another, so (sqrt (+ 1 (sqr (fprime x)))) is actually a constant. Try it again on a real function, like the sine curve that started this whole thing, and the answers are NOT exactly equal, just close, as one would expect. Whew!

So, I plug in h=4" and w=13" (since I happen to be holding a piece of 13"-wide linen). If the sleeve top were just angled straight lines, the answer would come out 2*sqrt(h2 + w2/4) = 15.26". With the sine curve and the Monte Carlo simulation for 100000 points, it comes out... 15.64". In other words, using a sine curve rather than straight lines makes less than a half-inch difference, which is comparable to the error in cutting and the bias stretch.

So now I know that, and next time I can just use the straight-line approximation. Oh, my, God... Ditto. I just measure for bicep circumference and sleeve cap height then use a flexible ruler to make a curve that matches the armscye measurement. Uh yeah. That.

But if the curve is too steep, I fix it and add a flare or gusset. Remember - wrinkles in the armpit are period! Yes, after doing all that number-crunching, I stuck in a square underarm gusset and started just sewing together anything that looked like it went together :-) That requires having a flexible ruler :-) And I was hoping for a general formula I could re-use. (No dice on that one.) That requires having a flexible ruler :-)

I use a length of string with two knots in it. Quantitative sewing is for sissies. Also, did they even use rulers in 15th cen. tailoring? Yes, the length of string works, and requires only period technology and mathematics. No, they probably didn't use rulers; in fact, I've seen textual references (don't remember the precise date) to a tailor taking someone's measurements with string, then going off to make the garment.

It would have been nice to get a general formula that tells me how the fabric width, the curve height, and the seam length all co-vary. It would have been nice to solve explicitly for any one of the three in terms of the others. But that's not the cards we were dealt.... Measuring tape on-end works too. Or knotted string.
I have a textbook on flat pattern drafting that shows how to make slopers from measurements for everything except sleeves. That gets handwaved away. It recommends draping. Should I read this as a sign that you're getting ready to help me fit sleeves tonight?

P.S. O.o >.< o.O >.< O.O Tell ya what, we'll team teach the sleeve class I'm doing at KWCS and see which method people prefer. ;-) Naagaa happen--KWCS is the same weekend as Dewey (Greyhounds Reach the Beach) :-D Dang. I want to see heads explode when the come to the sleeve class and get that explanation. :-D You'll just have to find someone else to be your Bad Cop partner this time :-D ### P.S.

Yabbut integral calculus isn't peeeeeriod.... Me neither. :) That's cuz you landed nobility types can afford to buy off the rack :-P Dang, you are left brained!!

This makes me think of the day you came over to teach me reed making. Yours were coming out best when you measured within a millimeter of life, and mine worked when I did rough measuring and then eyeballed it. (Gotta order reeds and a new kit!) I sew the same way, though it would be 16th century :-)

You do know that you bring geekdom to knew levels--and I say that with all love as a complete compliment. I mean, come on, my idea of a kickin' good time is an afternoon with a Schantz and some Duruffle or Vierne. ## April 2017

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